Many games use colored, glowing auras to indicate that characters are buffed or debuffed, but if not done carefully, these can blend in with the background and get overlooked. Consider using an animated texture instead, like rising flames or bubbles.
Iconography & Sound
Icons are often more descriptive but less immersive since they are non-diegetic, but are a good option to include in game settings if players with vision disabilities are having issues. Use unique sounds to describe each status effect, and make sure you’ve made it clear when each effect begins and ends.
Damage/Healing over Time
Some players may not be able to see their health bar and the game at the same time due to mobility issues or low field of vision. Improve their experience by applying visuals to their character or cursor at the center of the screen, or using full-screen effects and audio. All players should be able to tell when they are taking continual damage over time, or they may find the game too unforgiving.
Multiple layers of feedback
One option is using animated effects like flashing the character or surrounding them with sparkling particles. For more immersion, use character animation to show a player grimacing or sighing in relief. Always use sound and animation to indicate when the effect begins or is about to end so that players feel like it’s fair.
A common way to show invincibility is to flash the character sprite with different colors and play frenetic music. But don’t forget to let players know how long the effect will last or when their invincibility is about to end. No one likes running into an enemy thinking they’re invincible when the effect has run out one frame beforehand.
Many games fade the music and animation over time as a player’s invincibility is running out, while others flash the sprite more rapidly or draw a particle trail that reduces in size. You’re afforded a lot of creativity in how you indicate invincibility, but remember to include both visual and audio cues so no one gets frustrated.
Any time you have a timer in a game, think about representing it visually, such as a bar or clock. This way, players get an idea of how quickly a skill will cool down without having to count or read anything.
Skills generally have three statuses: available, in use, or on cooldown. Make sure you have unique sounds to represent all three of these statuses.
Hit feedback is important for letting players know whether their actions have landed or missed. Without positive or negative feedback, they can be confused or discouraged from playing.
Critical hits should be challenging and the feedback should feel special. Make it clear to the player how they can achieve a critical hit, whether that’s through tutorialization or creating visually obvious hot spots.
In Wobolob, players know when the ball rewards extra points because it gets smaller, faster, and darker in color.
Use sound and animation to differentiate it from a regular hit, and consider using a celebratory tone to create a positive feedback loop.
Don’t make precisely-aimed critical hits a required part of gameplay if you want to be inclusive of people with disabilities -- some people don’t have the dexterity or visual acquity necessary and it could keep them from progressing in the game.
Area of Effect (AoE)
Visual Indicator Accessibility
Players should understand the size of an area-of-effect skill before they use it, so make sure it’s clearly indicated and stands out from the background.